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On the analysis of electric failure analysis and maintenance technology of CNC machine tool

From:www.joyoucnc.com  Classification:Technical Support  Released:2017-12-2 11:59:04  Reading:(484)
Abstract:

  1. Diagnosis of electrical fault of CNC machine tool
  Usually, the machine tool manufacturer provides PLC program list or ladder diagram of CNC machine tool, and maintenance personnel often analyze the failure reason according to the PLC program, which requires the maintenance personnel skill of the machine tool. If the maintenance staff does not understand the PLC language of the CNC system, it will be very difficult to diagnose the work. With the development of CNC machine tool manufacturing technology, the diagnostic function of CNC machine tool is also a technical index to measure the performance of CNC machine tool. CNC system can provide hardware, drive, programming, operations and other related diagnostic function, including alarm information with clear text, or to provide online help function, or provide alarm manual. The fault diagnosis of machine tool is more and more important in machine tool factory.
  2. Electrical fault cause and diagnosis analysis of CNC machine tools
  The reason of the electrical failure of nc machine tool mainly includes power failure, numerical control system location ring fault, accidental failure, main shaft servo system spindle speed anomaly, etc. See figure 1. On the analysis of electric failure analysis and maintenance technology of CNC machine tool
  2.1 Power failure
  The power supply has great influence on CNC machine tool. Can directly cause the CNC machine machine system to shut down or system damage. Due to the high quality of science and technology in western developed countries, the power supply design of machine tools is not considered. Compared with western countries, China electric power supply network has a large fluctuation and high harmonics, coupled with the influence of human factors, the power failure of the machine tool has occurred.
  2.2 CNC system location ring fault
  (1) the axis generates motion without instruction. In this case, it may be due to the improper connection of the coordinate axis of the CNC machine tool system, the improper connection of the speed or the location ring, the wiring of the feedback and the damage of the system measuring elements.
  (2) the coordinates of CNC machine tools cannot be searched for zero. The occurrence of such cases is related to the failure of the wiring or encoder, the failure of the light back zero deceleration switch, the shift of the gate zero marker, the zero direction, etc. (3) location ring alarm. It may be that the measurement elements of the system have been damaged, there are no established control interface signals, and the location measurement circuit is opened, etc.
  (4) the workpiece quality of the machine tool is reduced, and it is worse in dynamic, even when it may reach some velocity value. The lubrication of the guide rail is not sufficient to wear or the gap between the mechanical transmission system is too large, or even the abrasion is serious, which may be the biggest cause of the condition. Check and adjust the speed and position of the electrical control of the system and the matching state of the related parameters after troubleshooting the mechanical failure.
  2.3 Accidental outage
  That related to two reasons: if after the machine back online after the power failure will be eliminated, certain operations and functions of the machine tool is run under the combination, cause caused by a BUG in the software in the design. The other is that the machine is too humid. Parts in China, the machine tool is often placed on plant near the door, in the machine tool running long time open machine tool power cupboard door, near a lot of dust, metal particles in the air or water mist entered it, and thus affect the normal work of the power equipment.
  2.4 Spindle speed of spindle servo system is abnormal
  There are many possible reasons for the spindle speed of the spindle servo system of the machine tool. Firstly, the variable speed system of the mechanical transmission part of the CNC machine is likely to be abnormal and must be readjusted. Secondly, the cable connection interrupt or the status indicator of the drive is damaged, and the cable must be reconnected or replaced. Thirdly, the stability of the output signal of the position control panel in the machine tool control cabinet is caused by poor stability. If the above problems can be ruled out, the control board can be further viewed.
  3. Troubleshooting and maintenance of electrical failures of CNC machine tools
  3.1 Strictly follow the operating procedures
  Numerical control system programming, operation and maintenance personnel should strictly abide by the operation procedures and strictly according to the machine tool and system operating instructions for operation, to avoid because of improper operation that there is an electrical fault of CNC machine tools.
  3.2 Periodic maintenance of paper tape reader or disk reader
  The operator of the CNC machine should clean the moving part of the paper reading machine regularly. Once a week, you should add lubricating oil to the guide roller and tensioning arm roller, once every half a year. In addition, the magnetic head of disk drive in the disk drive should be cleaned specially, and the special cleaning disk should be cleaned regularly.
  3.3 Monitor the power grid voltage of the cnc system
  For numerical control system, the power grid voltage rating of the security range from 85% to 110%, outside this range, numerical control system of work will appear unstable situation, even may damage the important electronic components. This requires that the CNC machine operator should be concerned about the voltage fluctuation of the numerical control system. In some areas where the power grid is not high, it is required to install special ac stabilized power supply device on the numerical control system to achieve the purpose of reducing the incidence of failure.
  3.4 Regular inspection and replacement of dc motor brush
  In order to carry out yearly inspection of CNC lathe, cnc milling machine and machining center, the machine should be checked twice a month for frequent acceleration of machine tools, such as punching process.
  4. Summarize
  To sum up, the numerical control machine tool operators to regular inspection on the numerical control system hardware and software, to ensure the safety and stability of nc machine tools can work at the same time, eliminate nc machine tool fault that may occur in the bud. The operator of CNC machine tool should learn to analyze the failures of numerical control system, know how to repair and maintain the CNC system, and ensure that the CNC machine can work properly.

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